**How to know if it is a half wave or full wave rectifier**

A diode is a device, that’s used for changing AC to pulsating DC. It is dependent on a PN junction which consists of silicon or germanium crystal. We recognize that after a few PN junction is ahead biased, it conducts (i.e. it passes modern internal it) and while it’s far opposite biased, it almost has no conduction (i.e. it does now no longer permit modern to byskip thru it).

**In different words, it blocks modern withinside the occasion of opposite bias.**

Thus, because of this characteristic of PN junction or diode, (that it lets in the simplest one-manner glide of modern), it’s a far **half wave rectifier** in general implemented as a rectifier in energy materials. A rectifier is without a doubt a circuit, wherein AC is transformed to pulsating DC by making use of one or extra diodes. Rectifiers are to be had withinside the following forms:

**Half Wave Rectifier**

The manner of changing AC to pulsating DC output is known as rectification. A rectifier, which converts the simplest 1/2 of cycle (or simplest advantageous 1/2 of) of an enter AC to pulsating DC, is known as 1/2 of wave rectifier. In fig 1, a circuit or diagram of a 1/2 of wave rectifier, with enter and output waves has been displayed.

**Construction**

In the displayed circuit, the transformer`s output has been linked with a diode and a loader resistor. Both diode and loader resistors are interlinked in a series. AC voltages had been furnished on transformers enter, which constantly adjusts polarity with regards to implemented voltage`s frequency. The semiconductor diode, implemented withinside the circuit, affords rectified voltage to load resistor R1.

**Working Method**

During the advantageous 1/2 of a cycle of AC enter voltage, the top factor (X) of the transformer`s secondary is advantageous as compared to the decrease factor (Y), consequently, the diode may be ahead biased (ON). In this manner, the diode will behave, and the ahead modern will byskip thru the weight resistor (R1) (i.e. the glide of the traditional modern will start the instant the diode conducts). Due to this modern, output voltage parallel to the weight (the fee of which relies upon the values of modern and cargo resistors i.e. V=IR) will emerge.

**During the bad 1/2 of a cycle (while enter voltages are bad withinside the 2d 1/2 of the cycle),**

the better factor of the transformer`s secondary winding (factor X) is bad as compared to its decrease factor (Y), because of which the diode turns into opposite biased (or off). Therefore, no modern will byskip among diode and cargo in the course of the bad 1/2 of the cycle, because of the incapability of diodes to behavior. Thus, no voltages will seem parallel to R1.(that`s the fee of voltage parallel to load resistor may be zero). Remember, that most opposite voltages are acquired parallel to the diode, in the course of the bad 1/2 of the cycle.

As 1/2 of wave rectifier affords AC enter parallels to load voltage on bad 1/2 of the cycle and stops bad 1/2 of cycle from shifting closer to the weight, consequently natural DC voltages do now no longer generate on 1/2 of wave rectification, as a substitute they may be pulsating. i.e. such output DCs voltages have a thing of AC, that’s called a ripple.

In different words, 1/2 of wave rectifiers, do now no longer have a regular DC, as a substitute output is withinside the shape of a pulsating DC wave, the ripple frequency of which equals ripple voltage frequency. This wave may be visible parallel to R1 thru an oscilloscope. (discern 1). A clear-out circuit is used so that it will dispose of ripples or attain a regular-kingdom output. The following consequences are acquired thru this manner of rectification.

**Average Values**

The fee depicted through a DC meter is known as its common fee.

(i). Vdc=Vin/π=0.138Vin

or

Vdc=1/2π ∫π⁰?⍬=1/2π ∫π⁰ (Vm Sin⍬) d⍬

=Vm/2π = Vm/2π [+1-(-1)]

=Vm/π=0.318Vm

(ii). Idc= Vdc/RL=Vm/πRL=0.318Vm/RL=0318Iπ

(iii). Irms=Im/2=051m

**Peak Inverse Voltage**

The most voltage determined in an opposite course parallel to a diode is known as height inverse voltage. Under the existing situation, its fee typically is V in Form issue=rms fee/common fee=0.5Im/0.318Im=1.57

**Efficiency**

The ratio among output DC energy and standard AC enter furnished with the aid of using the circuit is known as performance i.e.

η= Pout /P in

Where P out= I2dc RL

Pin= I2rms (rd+RL)

Here RL way load resistance and rd way AC resistance of the diode

η= I2dc RL/I2rms (rd +RL) x 100…(1)

By coming into the values of Idc and Irms in equation (1) (due to the fact Idc=0.381 and Irms=0.51)

η= (0.3181m) 2. RL/ (0.51m) 2 (rd+RL) x100

=0.101124 I2m. RL/0.25 I2m(rd+RL)x100

=0.101124 I2m. RL/ 0.25 I2mrd+ 0.25 I2mRL … (2)

Taking RL I2m 0.251 is not unusualplace from the divider of equation (2)

=0.0.101124 I2m . RL/0.25 I2m RL (rd/RL +1) x100

=0.406/rd/RL+1 x100= 40.6/I+rd/RL percent

Ignoring diode resistance rd

η=40.6% ………………………(3)

We recognize that a diode`s (or DC energy delivery`s) output includes a pulsating DC in place of regular DC voltage. Its motive is the presence of a few AC additives in output DC. Such AC additives are known as ripples. Compared to DC voltage, thru amount of ripples or size of versions in AC voltage, you could apprehend approximately the purity of DC energy output. It is known as the ripple issue (γ). Thus, the ripple issue of an unmarried section 1/2 of the wave rectifier is 1.21. The components of the ripple issue are as below:

**γ= √(Form Factor) 2-1**

**Ripple Factor**

Remember that during a 1/2 of the manner rectifier circuit, ripple frequency equals deliver frequency (i.e. ripple frequency is identical as furnished on enter). In such circuits, the ripple issue is more than the rectification issue and it’s far utilized in places, in which much less modern and extra voltage is required.

Following deliver voltage acquired from the load resistor from the above-cited equations

**Vdc= Vm/π-Idc rd**

Here Vm/π displays the common **MadPcb** amount of voltage on secondary terminals and Idc rd denotes the DC voltage drop at the diode.

**Full Wave Rectifier**

As the call suggests, it’s far a rectifier circuit, in which materials output to a complete cycle enter AC voltage (or each advantageous and bad element of a cycle), withinside the shape of a pulsating DC. The following circuits are implemented for complete wave rectification in the case of an array of diode sort of transformers.

(A). Full Wave Centre-Tapped Rectifier Circuit

(B). Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit

**Full Wave Centre Tapped Rectifier**

In this complete-wave rectification method, a center-tapped transformer, the secondary that’s center-tapped (because of which secondary winding divides into elements), and diodes are used. Which feature or behavior flips with the aid of using flip after every 1/2 of the cycle? A complete-wave